(1) This allows us to place much tighter constraints on the tectonic and thermal evolution of the lithosphere during late orogenic extension than has previously been possible.(2) the lithosphere comprises a number of plates(3) We attribute base level changes to the influence of the proto-Iceland mantle plume beneath the lithosphere , providing support until continental break-up west of the Faroe Islands.(4) At the same time, material that was eroded must be deposited offshore, amplifying the downward load where Mesozoic extension had already thinned the crust and weakened the lithosphere .(5) An alternative to an active mantle thermal anomaly is greater stretching of the mantle lithosphere than the crust.(6) After new oceanic crust forms, the lithosphere cools and thickens as it moves away from the ocean ridge.(7) Magmas erupted in continental volcanic arcs typically contain components from many sources in the crust, lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere.(8) These features of the Moine succession are instead most consistent with accumulation in a regionally extensive shallow marine basin formed during subsidence following initial lithospheric thinning.(9) They are interpreted to have been derived from subduction modified lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle sources.(10) Mineral compositions vary as magmas evolve in sub-volcanic, lithospheric magma chambers by assimilation and differentiation.(11) This suggests that the peralkaline volcanic magma was derived from a lithospheric mantle source that had not been previously depleted in incompatible elements.